Dutch republic

Common names in Dutch for the Republic in official correspondence were:

Dutch republic

Introduction[ edit ] To fully understand the peculiarities of the history of the system of public finance, and that of the closely related system of private international finance Dutch republic banking of the Dutch Republic, one has to Dutch republic it in the context of the general history of the Netherlands and of its institutions, and of the general Economic History of the Netherlands - In contrast to that general history this is a sectoral history, concerning the fiscal and financial sector.

It is important to realize that those general histories differ in an important way from those of centralized Western European monarchies, like SpainFranceEnglandDenmark and Sweden in the early modern era. The Netherlands were highly decentralized from their origins in the Habsburg Netherlands in the late 15th century, and other than the monarchies just mentioned successfully resisted attempts to bring them together under the centralized authority of a modern state.

Indeed, the Dutch Revolt that gave rise to the Republic of the United Netherlands, effectively resulted from resistance against attempts by the representatives of king Philip II of Spainthe Dutch republic ruler of the country, to institute such a centralized state and a centralized system of public finance.

Where in other instances the modern fiscal system resulted from, and was made subservient to, the interests of a centralizing monarchical state, in the Dutch instance the emerging fiscal system was the basis of, and was mobilized in the interests of the defense of, a stubbornly decentralised political entity.

Ironically, the Habsburg rulers themselves pushed through the fiscal reforms that gave the rebellious provinces the wherewithal to resist the power of the sovereign. Emperor Charles V needed to increase the borrowing capacity of his government to finance his many military adventures.

To that end it was necessary to put in place a number of fiscal reforms that would ensure that the public debt could be adequately serviced thereby increasing the creditworthiness of his government. In the president of the Habsburg Council of State, Lodewijk van Schoor, proposed the levy of a number of taxes throughout the Habsburg Netherlands: Other than expected, these reforms strengthened the position of the provinces, especially Holland, because as a condition of agreeing to the reform the States of Holland demanded and got total control of the disbursement of the taxes.

Holland was now able to establish credit of its own, as the province was able to retire bond loans previously placed under compulsion as enforced loans.

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By this it demonstrated to potential creditors it was worthy of trust. This brought a market for voluntary credit into being that previously did not exist.

Dutch republic

This enabled Holland, and other provinces, to float bonds at a reasonable interest rate in a large pool of voluntary investors. On the contrary, its financing needs increased tremendously after the accession of Philip II, and this led to the crisis that caused the Revolt.

This brought about a general revolt in the Netherlands, particularly in the northern provinces. Those were able to withstand the onslaught of the royalist forces militarily, because of the fiscal basis they had built in previous years.

Of course, they now withheld the subsidies to the central government their taxes were supposed to finance. That central government was therefore forced to finance the war by transfers from other Habsburg lands, especially Spain itself.

This led to an enormous increase in the size of the Spanish public debt, which that country was ultimately unable to sustain, and hence to the need to accept Dutch independence in This economic revolution was partly the cause of, and partly helped along further, by a number of fiscal and financial innovations that helped the Dutch economy make the transition to "modernity" in the early 17th century.

Public finance[ edit ] The "constitution" of the new Republic, the Union-of-Utrecht treaty oftried to lay the basis of a revolutionary new fiscal system. It put in place a rudimentary confederal budget system that charged the Raad van State Council of State [4] with drafting an annual Staat van Oorlog war budget.

Dutch Republic - Wikipedia

This budget was presented in a "General Petition" to the States-General for unanimous approval. Alas, these two latter provisions were never implemented. Instead, the provinces continued the practice under the Habsburg rulers that the provinces paid a fixed quotum the repartitie of the budget.Aug 31,  · In the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic witnessed its Golden Age.

The reasons for this phenomenon are diverse, but it impacted all branches of Dutch society, including the production, distribution and consumption of printed media. Dutch Republic, formally Republic of the United Netherlands, Dutch Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden, (–), state whose area comprised approximately that of the present Kingdom of the Netherlands and which achieved a position of world power in the 17th century.

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The Microscope in the Dutch Republic: The Shaping of Discovery [Edward G. Ruestow] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Focusing on the two seventeenth-century pioneers of microscopic discovery, the Dutchmen Jan Swammerdam and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

Header 2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Aenean consequat consectetur condimentum. Cras at dui vitae odio bibendum commodo. The Dutch Revolt (–) was the successful revolt of the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the urbanagricultureinitiative.com southern provinces initially joined in the revolt but later submitted to Spain..

The religious "clash of cultures" built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts.

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