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It is often made of multiple pieces, joined with animal glue in V-splices, so the wood must accept glue well. Pieced construction allows the sharp bends that many designs require, and the use of woods with different mechanical properties for the bending and nonbending sections.
The wood of the bending part of the limb "dustar" must endure intense shearing stress, and denser woods such as hard maples are normally used in Turkish bows. Some composite bows have nonbending tips "siyahs"which need to be stiff and light; they may be made of woods such as Sitka spruce.
Water buffalo horn is very suitable, as is horn of several antelopes such as gemsbokoryxibexand that of Hungarian grey cattle. Most forms of cow horn are not suitable, as they soon delaminate with use.
The horn can store more energy than wood in compression. The sinew is normally obtained from the lower legs and back of wild deer or domestic ungulates.
Chapter 4 Traditional and modern beehives and beekeeping equipment. Contents - Previous - Next. Traditional hives Modern rives Advantages and disadvantages of frame and top-bar hives. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FIVE POPULAR JOB ANALYSIS METHODS Method Advantages Disadvantages Job performance With this method there is exposure This method is inappropriate for jobs to actual job tasks as well as to the that require extensive training or are physical, environmental, and social hazardous to perform. Jun 29, · The net present value calculation is a popular method used by business managers to evaluate the profitability of different projects. It is easy to use but it also has certain limitations.
Traditionally, ox tendons are considered inferior to wild-game sinews since they have a higher fat content, leading to spoilage.
Hide glue or gelatin made from fish gas bladders is used to attach layers of sinew to the back of the bow, and to attach the horn belly to the wooden core. Both horn and laths may be bound and glued with further lengths of sinew.
After months of drying the bow is ready for use. Further finishing may include thin leather or waterproof bark, to protect the bow from moisture, and recent Turkish bows were often highly decorated with colourful paints and gold leaf.
Strings and arrows are essential parts of the weapon system, but no type of either is specifically associated with composite bows throughout their history. Advantages and disadvantages of composite construction[ edit ] Advantages[ edit ] The main advantage of composite bows over self bows made from a single piece of wood is their combination of smaller size with high power.
They are therefore more convenient than self bows when the archer is mobile, as from horseback, or from a chariot. Almost all composite bows are also recurve bows as the shape curves away from the archer; this design gives higher draw-weight in the early stages of the archer's draw, storing somewhat more total energy for a given final draw-weight.
It would be possible to make a wooden bow that has the same shape, length and draw-weight as a traditional composite bow, but it could not store the energy, and would break before full draw.
At the weights more usual for modern amateurs, the greater density of horn and sinew compared to wood usually cancels any advantage.
Karpowicz suggests that crafting a composite bow may take a week's work, excluding drying time months and gathering materials, while a self bow can be made in a day and dried in a week. Medieval Europeans favoured self bows as hand bows, but they made composite prods for crossbows. The prods were usually well protected from rain and humidity which are prevalent in much of Europe.
Origins and use[ edit ] Associated with charioteers[ edit ] Early Bronze Age cultures in the Asian steppe. Bows of any kind seldom survive in the archaeological record. Composite bows may have been invented first by the nomads of the Asiatic steppe, who may have based it on earlier Northern Asian laminated bows.
Other sites of the Sintashta culture have produced finds of horn and bone, interpreted as furniture grips, arrow rests, bow ends, string loops of bows; there is no indication that the bending parts of these bows included anything other than wood. It has been suggested that the Srubna culture contemporaneous with, and a neighbour to, the Andronovo culture used composite bows, but no archaeological evidence is known.
Several composite bows were found in the tomb of Tutankhamunwho died in BCE. By mounted archers[ edit ] Ottoman horse archer The mounted archer became the archetypal warrior of the steppes and the composite bow was his archetypal weapon, used to protect the herds, in steppe warfare, and in incursions into settled lands.
Classic tactics for horse-mounted archers included skirmishing; they would approach, shoot, and retreat before any effective response could be made. Parthians inflicted heavy defeats on Romansthe first being the Battle of Carrhae.
However, horse archers did not make an army invincible; Han General Ban Chao led successful military expeditions in the late 1st century CE that conquered as far as central Asia, and both Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great defeated horse archer armies.
Well-led Roman armies defeated Parthian armies on several occasions and twice took the Parthian capital. By infantry[ edit ] Composite bows can be used without difficulty by infantry. The infantry archers of classical Greece and the Roman Empire used composite bows.
The military of the Han Dynasty BCE— CE utilized composite crossbowsoften in infantry square formations, in their many engagements against the Xiongnu. Until archers with composite bows were a main component of the forces of the Ottoman Empirebut in the Battle of Lepanto in that year they lost most of these troops and never replaced them.Advantages and Disadvantages of Five Popular Job Analysis Methods Essay Cascio: Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, Seventh Edition II - Advantages and Disadvantages of Five Popular Job Analysis Methods Essay introduction.
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